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Thrissur Kole Wetlands – Kerala


Tourism in Thrissur – Kerala

A snap from Nedupuzha Kole fields which is located on Thrissur district, Kerala. Nedupuzha is well famous in paddy cultivation in the kole fields.  


Thrissur Kole Wetlands

Thrissur Kole Wetlands is located in the district of Thrissur, in the state of Kerala, in south India. It is a unique wetland that covers the surface area of 33,700 acres or 13,640 ha. The primary inflows in this region are from Chalakudy River. It largely gives approximately 40 % of the Kerala’s rice needs and requirement. It also perfectly acts as a natural drainage system for Thrissur District and Thrissur city. The Kole Wetlands is one of threatened, largest and highly productive wetlands in the state of Kerala. It has been largely declared in Ramsar Convention for immediate protection. This region comes right in Central Asian Flyway of a large variety of migratory birds.

History of Thrissur Kole Fields

According to the local legends, rice cultivation in Kole lands is mentioned to have been started from 18th century on-wards. As per record, Thrissur Kole lands rice cultivation just dates back to from the year 1916 only.

Geography of Thrissur Kole lands

The special word “Kole” in the Malayalam language means “a bumper yield”. It is a cultivation method particularly adopted in wastelands in the district of Thrissur from the month of December to May that otherwise is totally submerged from the month of June to November which is actually half of the year. These particular wetlands largely lies between 75° 58′ and between 76° 11′ E longitudes plus 10° 20′ and 10° 40′ N latitudes. This wetland is low laying tracts that are located 0.5 to 1m just below Mean Sea Level. It also remain totally submerges for nearly six months in a year. The lands of Kole lands are spread over eight blocks in Thrissur. The temperature varied from 28°C to 31°5°C and the average annual rainfall is approximately 3,200 mm.

Silent features of Kole Wetland

In the districts of Malapuram and Thrissur, the Kole Wetlands largely cover an area of approximately 13,632 hectares. The region extends from River Chalakudy in South to River Bharathappuzha in the North, plus to Ponnani Taluk. This Wetlands largely acts as natural drainage system for Thrissur district and Thrissur city through a perfect network of ponds and canals which connects different portions of Kole Wastelands to Rivers and then later on to the Arabian Sea with lot of perfection. It is rightly fertile with higher degree of Alluvium soil that is largely deposited Karuvannoor and Kechery River in the monsoon.


Puzhakkal River is one of the Rivers that pass through the Kole Wetlands. It largely provides water required for rice cultivation to a great extent. After Chilika Lake in the state of Orissa and Amipur Tank in the state of Gujarat, the Thrissur Kole Wetlands is the third largest in terms of the number of birds in India. It has been rightly recognized as one of the nation’s significant Bird Areas under BirdLife International. As per research studies, there are approximately 241 species of birds such as spot-billed pelican, Oriental darter, darter, black-headed ibis, black-bellied tern, painted stork, greater spotted eagle and cinereous vulture. Fishes such as Caranx, mangrove red snapper, Cyprinidae, barramundi and Megalops cyprinoides are also largely found in Kole Wetland.

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